Transported to America 1737
Old Bailey Proceedings Online <<www.oldbaileyonline.org>>, February 22, 2005) May 1737 trial of John DUNNICK Ref: t17370526-38. Original page 136 & 140, image #16 & #20.
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Thank you to Phyllis Wedgeworth for sharing the "Old Bailey" website with us. (Phyllis' ancestor wed Rebecca Passmore - )
Court Proceedings, May 1737
"45. John Dunnick , was indicted for stealing 1756 Ounces of foreign Silver,
called Pieces of Eight, value 470 l. the Goods of the Governor and Company of Merchants trading to the South-Sea,
March the 18th And
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
SUMMARY of COURT PROCEEDINGS
|"Justice Hall, or the Sessions House,
was also called the Old Bailey after the street in which it was located,
just off Newgate Street and next to Newgate Prison, in the western part
of the City of London." After 1734 "Old Bailey" was named
"Central Criminal Court" and court was held twelve times a year.
"In 1737 a passageway was constructed linking the courthouse with Newgate Prison, to facilitate the transport of prisoners between the two."
Source: Tim Hitchcock and Robert Shoemaker, 'Gender in the Proceedings', Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, February 22, 2005).
|".. Newgate was the place from which thousands started the long journey which ended in the colonies. For over 200 years transportation for periods varying from 7 years to life was a much used (and abused) form of punishment. " <<http://www.rjerrard.co.uk/law/city/ccc2.htm>>, Feb. 22, 2005|
|England of the 1700's was a very harsh place to live. It had
a population of approximately 9 million people of which about one million
were unemployed. Of those who had jobs many were not working regularly or
were poorly paid.
Poverty was rampant and crime was increasing in a country that had a judicial system but no organized Police Force. Old military men served as police officers. In an effort to deal with the increasing crime rate, the government introduced harsher punishments. In 1700 people could be hung for stealing even very small items.
Hitchcock and Shoemaker (www.oldbaileyonline.org, February 22, 2005) report that for those employed, the "cost of living was essentially in line with wages, although some items were much more expensive than their modern equivalents."
Public hangings became a popular entertainment. A carnival atmosphere with food and drink vendors helped make the hangings a family entertainment. This was not the governments goal. Fortunately by the time John Dunnick and Mary Parsmore (Passmore) were tried, the value of the stolen items required for hanging had been increased and between 1718 and 1775 "transportation" to North America was the preferred penalty. This practice ended with the American Revolutionary War. After that the convicts were sent to Australia. and rather than use convict labor or indentured servants, colonial America turned to slavery.
|"Although convicts were transported in the seventeenth
century, it had to be done either at their own expense or that of the merchants
or shipowners." "In 1718 England passed the first Transportation
Act ..... In 1720 a further statute authorized payments by the state to
merchants who contracted to take convicts to America." To return before
the end of ones sentence was punishable by death. Source: Tim Hitchcock
and Robert Shoemaker, 'Gender in the Proceedings', Old Bailey Proceedings
Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, February 22, 2005).
No doubt the Captains who transported these convicts indentured them. (a sample contract is below)
was transported on the Pretty Patsy from Newgate Prison to Baltimore, MD
(From Newgate Prison, London England, to Port of Maryland 2 Sept. 1737) Arrived in Maryland from Newgate Prison, City of London, County of Middlesex aboard the Pretty Patsie. "Francis Lux Commander for Maryland." Shipped by Mr. Jonathan Forward of London, Merchant, 2 Sept. 1737 for MD. - List of Prisoners -- John Dunnick etc.
Source: Immigrant Ships, Transcribers Guild, "Pretty Patsie." Transcribed by John Bowman whose ancestor was also aboard the ship
On this same ship was a Rebecca Peircemore/ Parsemore/ Pasmore/Passmore. Wonder if John's future wife, Mary Passmore is related to Rebecca.
|Mary Parsmore / Passmore was
tried in April 1733 for housebreaking and stealing 3 gowns, a pair of Stays,
and other things...at Eight in the morning (daytime was a lesser offense).
She was found guilty, and was transported April 17, 1733 aboard the "Patapscoe
Merchant" to Maryland.
Source: Old Bailey Proceedings Online <<www.oldbaileyonline.org>>, February 22, 2005)
It is interesting to note the captain of the vessel that transported John Dunnick was Francis LUX and the Patapscoe was piloted by Derby LUX. Below is a sample of a contract signed by Lux and Forward to transport convicts.
Also of interest is another passenger on the "Patapsoce Merchant" -- Thomas Wadsworth. Thomas Wadsworth wed Rebecca Parsmore/Passmore.
|John "Dunnikc" wed Mary Passmore December
5, 1742 (John 5 years after arrival) - Mary 9 yr.
Rebecca Passmore wed Thomas Wadsworth January 1741 (Rebecca 4 yrs after arrival) Thomas 8 yr.
Source: "St. John's and St. George's Parish register, Baltimore and Harford Counties Maryland 1696-1851 by Henry C. Peden, Jr.
The following (I found on Rootsweb - unknown submitter's email address no longer valid) is a sample of the agreement to Transport prisoners from Newgate prison to Maryland, signed by Darby LUX the same captain that transported Mary Parsmore/Passmore. In summary, the document was signed by Jon Forward, George Crosby and Darby Lux. Jonathan Forward was paid 5 pounds per head even if the convict died enroute. Captain Darby Lux was required to obtain an authentic Certificate from the Manager of Maryland's Customs house confirming the convicts arrival in Maryland. It appears that several people were allowed one month to pay what appears to be a fine of 40 pounds each and not be transported. This was about the annual income for families surviving just above the poverty level. (a domestic earned two-three pounds annually, while a coachman earned between 12 and 26 pounds. I assume that they were indentured for the term of their exile from England. Exiles generally were 7 years to life. During the 1600 and 1700's, 75% of the immigrants to America were indentured as some point in their lives.
Some of the wording in the following documents are hard to follow. I have
(list of names omitted here